## Galileo’s Ramp

**Type:** Investigation

**Theme:** Physics

**Grades:** 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

**Source:** Youcubed.org

**Learning Target:** Students will learn how velocity can be determined for an accelerating object. They will discover the fundamentals of calculus.

Instructions

Please collaborate in groups of two or three.

**Materials:** two meter sticks (connected in v-shaped channel) or drywall paper-faced corner bead, a large book, a marble, stopwatch, and notebook. (If inches, use 20 in/s speed limit sign.)

**Objective:** Calculate the velocity (speed) of a marble at four locations along a ramp.

- What is velocity (distance/time)? Velocity equals change in distance divided by change in time.
- Make a plan to accurately calculate the velocity (meters per second) of your marble on the ramp. How will you calculate the velocity of an accelerating object? Annotated sketches are required.
- Construct the ramp and perform tests. Capture video or photographic artifacts.
- Answer the following questions:
- How high was the starting point of the ramp in cm?
- Where on the ramp is the marble at its average speed?
- Is acceleration constant throughout the marble’s journey?
- Did you break the speed limit? (0.5 m/s or 20 in/s)

- Peer review and revisions. Ask two students review your project. Make at least one revision based on their input. Please review two different projects. Please include this Peer_Review.docx with your project.
- Submission: Word document containing the following (you are
**not**required to create a Sway or PowerPoint).- Your name(s)
- Your plan
- Video or photo documentation
- Desmos graph of your results (high school students, please regress your data.)
- Peer Review document.
- Evaluation (a brief paragraph on your results and how you would revise your plan next time.)

### Resources

Exit Ticket

CCSS Math Practice

- I can model with mathematics.
- I can attend to precision.

NGSS Crosscutting Concepts

- Systems and System Models
- Energy and Matter